LTBP Program’s Literature Review on Weigh-in-Motion Systems

Publication No. FHWA-HRT-16-024
June 2016

Imad Al-Qadi, Hao Wang, Yanfeng Ouyang, Kirk Grimmelsman, and Jeffrey Purdy

Truck size and weight are regulated using Federal and State legislation and policies to ensure safety and preserve bridge and high infrastructure. Weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems can capture the weight and other defining characteristics of the vehicles actually using the Nation’s highways, providing important loading-related data that is essential for evaluating the performance of transportation infrastructure.

As part of the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA) Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP) Program’s Technical Assistance Contract, a literature review of the state of the practice was performed for WIM systems installed in pavements and on bridges. This literature review focused on the development of WIM systems, concepts for measuring axle loads, the applications of WIM sensors for pavements, and recent advancements in bridge WIM system. This review covers the types, installation, calibration, operations, accuracy, efficiency, effectiveness, and durability of WIM systems, in addition to current Federal and State truck load regulations. This review facilitates selection of the appropriate WIM technology systems for consideration and use to address LTBP Program needs. This literature review serves as a reference document for Pooled Fund Project Number TPF-5(283), The Influence of Vehicular Live Loads on Bridge Performance, which targets the impact of vehicle live loads on bridge component durability.

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